Sustained formation of alpha-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone radical adducts in mouse liver by peroxisome proliferators is dependent upon peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, but not NADPH oxidase. Academic Article uri icon


  • Reactive oxygen species are thought to be crucial for peroxisome proliferator-induced liver carcinogenesis. Free radicals have been shown to mediate the production of mitogenic cytokines by Kupffer cells and cause DNA damage in rodent liver. Previous in vivo experiments demonstrated that acute administration of the peroxisome proliferator di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) led to an increase in production of alpha-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone (POBN) radical adducts in liver, an event that was dependent on Kupffer cell NADPH oxidase, but not peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha. Here, we hypothesized that continuous treatment with peroxisome proliferators will cause a sustained formation in POBN radical adducts in liver. Mice were fed diets containing either 4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)-2-pyrimidinylthioacetic acid (WY-14,643, 0.05% w/w) or DEHP (0.6% w/w) for up to 3 weeks. Liver-derived radical production was assessed in bile samples by measuring POBN radical adducts using electron spin resonance. Our data indicate that WY-14,643 causes a sustained increase in POBN radical adducts in mouse liver and that this effect is greater than that of DEHP. To understand the molecular source of these radical species, NADPH oxidase-deficient (p47phox-null) and PPARalpha-null mice were examined after treatment with WY-14,643. No increase in radicals was observed in PPARalpha-null mice that were treated with WY-14,643 for 3 weeks, while the response in p47phox-nulls was similar to that of wild-type mice. These results show that PPARalpha, not NADPH oxidase, is critical for a sustained increase in POBN radical production caused by peroxisome proliferators in rodent liver. Therefore, peroxisome proliferator-induced POBN radical production in Kupffer cells may be limited to an acute response to these compounds in mouse liver.

published proceedings

  • Free Radic Biol Med

author list (cited authors)

  • Woods, C. G., Burns, A. M., Maki, A., Bradford, B. U., Cunningham, M. L., Connor, H. D., ... Rusyn, I.

citation count

  • 10

complete list of authors

  • Woods, Courtney G||Burns, Amanda M||Maki, Akira||Bradford, Blair U||Cunningham, Michael L||Connor, Henry D||Kadiiska, Maria B||Mason, Ronald P||Peters, Jeffrey M||Rusyn, Ivan

publication date

  • February 2007