Radical scavenging capacities and inhibition of human prostate (LNCaP) cell proliferation by Fortunella margarita
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Lyophilised nagami kumquat (Fortunella margarita) powder was extracted with five different solvents. Dried extracts of EtOAc and MeOH-water (4:1, v/v) had the highest and lowest total phenolics, respectively, by Folin-Ciocalteu method. LC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of different levels of rutin, narirutin, poncirin, apigenin 8-C-rutinoside and 3′,5′,di-C-β- glucopyranosyl phloretin in all the extracts except n-hexane. EtOAc and MeOH extracts exhibited the highest and the lowest 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, respectively. The order of antioxidant capacity was found to be MeOH-water (4:1, v/v) > EtOAc > MeOH > n-hexane > acetone by phosphomolybdenum complex and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values. Among five extracts, n-hexane extract exhibited the highest inhibition of human prostate cancer (LNCaP) cells (86.4%) after 96 h at 100 μg/mL, followed by EtOAc (82.8%), MeOH (76.7%) and MeOH-water (4:1, v/v) (68.2%). Fragmentation of DNA suggests the ability of extracts to induce apoptosis in LNCaP cells. The cleavage of caspase-3 was the highest in n-hexane and EtOAc extracts, whereas the ratio of Bax/Bcl2 was the highest in MeOH and MeOH-water (4:1, v/v) extracts. The results of the present study were also supported by fluorescent images of LNCaP cells treated with kumquat extracts. The maximum cell proliferation inhibition activity of n-hexane extract may be due to the presence of one or cumulative effect of β-carotene, β-cubebene and hexadecanoic acid. Remaining four extracts exhibited differential antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity which may be due to the presence of various levels of rutin, narirutin, poncirin, apigenin-8-C- rutinoside and 3′,4′-di-C-β-glucopyranosyl phloretin in each extract. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
author list (cited authors)
Jayaprakasha, G. K., Murthy, K., Etlinger, M., Mantur, S. M., & Patil, B. S.
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Jayaprakasha, GK||Murthy, KN Chidambara||Etlinger, Melissa||Mantur, Shivappa M||Patil, Bhimanagouda S
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