Enhanced endothelin-1/Rho-kinase signalling and coronary microvascular dysfunction in hypertensive myocardial hypertrophy.
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Aims: Hypertensive cardiac hypertrophy is associated with reduced coronary flow reserve, but its impact on coronary flow regulation and vasomotor function remains incompletely understood and requires further investigation. Methods and results: Left ventricular hypertrophy was induced in mice by transverse aortic coarctation (TAC) for 4 weeks. The left coronary artery blood velocity (LCABV) and myocardium lactate level were measured following the metabolic activation by isoproterenol. Septal coronary arterioles were isolated and pressurized for functional studies. In TAC mice, the heart-to-body weight ratio was increased by 45%, and cardiac fractional shortening and LCABV were decreased by 51 and 14%, respectively. The resting myocardial lactate level was 43% higher in TAC mice. Isoproterenol (5 µg/g, i.p.) increased heart rate by 20% in both groups of animals, but the corresponding increase in LCABV was not observed in TAC mice. The ventricular hypertrophy was associated with elevation of myocardial endothelin-1 (ET-1), increased vascular expression of rho-kinases (ROCKs), and increased superoxide production in the myocardium and vasculature. In coronary arterioles from TAC mice, the endothelial nitric oxide (NO)-mediated dilation to acetylcholine (ACh) was reversed to vasoconstriction and the vasoconstriction to ET-1 was augmented. Inhibition of ROCK by H-1152 alleviated oxidative stress and abolished enhanced vasoconstriction to ET-1. Both H-1152 and superoxide scavenger Tempol abolished coronary arteriolar constriction to ACh in a manner sensitive to NO synthase blocker NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Conclusions: Myocardial hypertrophy induced by pressure overload leads to cardiac and coronary microvascular dysfunction and ischaemia possibly due to oxidative stress, enhanced vasoconstriction to ET-1 and compromised endothelial NO function via elevated ROCK signalling.
author list (cited authors)
Tsai, S., Lu, G., Xu, X., Ren, Y. i., Hein, T. W., & Kuo, L.