- This paper describes research that investigated the application of the global positioning system and 3 degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) angular tracking to address the registration problem during interactive visualization of construction graphics in outdoor augmented reality (AR) environments. The global position and the three-dimensional (3D) orientation of a user's viewpoint are tracked, and this information is reconciled with the known global position and orientation of superimposed computer-aided design (CAD) objects. Based on this computation, the relative translation and axial rotations between the user's viewpoint and the CAD objects are continually calculated. The relative geometric transformations are then applied to the CAD objects inside a virtual viewing frustum that is coincided with the real world space that is in the user's view. The result is an augmented outdoor environment where superimposed graphical objects stay fixed to their real world locations as the user navigates. The algorithms are implemented in a software tool called UM-AR-GPS-ROVER that is capable of interactively placing static and dynamic 3D models at any location in outdoor augmented space. The concept and prototype are demonstrated with an example in which scheduled construction activities for the erection of a structural steel frame are graphically simulated in outdoor AR. 2007 ASCE.