Irrigation and Nitrogen Management of Artichoke: Yield, Head Quality, and Phenolic Content Academic Article uri icon


  • Globe artichoke [Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus (L.) Fiori] has been recently introduced as a specialty crop in southwest Texas. Marketable yield, yield components, quality, and phenolic compounds of artichoke heads were investigated in response to three irrigation [50%, 75%, and 100% crop evapotranspiration (ETc)] regimes and four nitrogen (0 to 10, 60, 120, and 180 kgha1) rates under subsurface drip irrigation. Field experiments were conducted over three seasons (20052006, 20062007, and 20072008) at Uvalde, TX. Irrigation was more effective than nitrogen (N) rates to optimize crop yield and head quality. Marketable yields significantly increased at 100% ETc compared with 75% and 50% ETc, whereas a 20% to 35% yield reduction occurred at 50% ETc across seasons. This yield reduction was associated with a decrease in both number of marketable heads and head weight and with reductions in plant physiological responses as measured in the last season. The lack of yield responses to N rates was in part the result of high pre-plant soil NO3-N and NH4-N levels. Total phenolics and chlorogenic acid of artichoke heads increased as the harvesting season progressed and were highest at 50% ETc during mid- and late harvests in one season. Based on these results, we estimate that under these environmental conditions, 700 mm (for a bare soil system) of water inputs and 120 kgha1 or less of N (rate depending on soil available N) appear sufficient to obtain high marketable yields, superior size, and nutritional head quality of artichokes.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Shinohara, T., Agehara, S., Yoo, K. S., & Leskovar, D. I.

citation count

  • 32

complete list of authors

  • Shinohara, Togo||Agehara, Shinsuke||Yoo, Kil Sun||Leskovar, Daniel I

publication date

  • March 2011