Production system and storage temperature influence grapefruit vitamin C, limonoids, and carotenoids.
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Concentrations of grapefruit (cv. 'Rio Red'; Citrus paradisi Macf.) bioactives grown under organic and conventional production systems were evaluated after storage at various temperatures. The first experiment was conducted in November 2008 and the second experiment was conducted in February 2011 using commercial production, processing, and packing procedures. The harvested grapefruits were stored at 23 °C (room temperature) or 9 °C for 4 weeks and analyzed for vitamin C, limonoids, and carotenoids at the end of each week using HPLC. Vitamin C levels were higher in organically grown grapefruits (41.8 mg/100 g) compared to conventionally grown grapefruits (39.2 mg/100 g) at 0 days after harvest in the first experiment. However, production system did not significantly affect vitamin C levels in the second experiment. During storage at room temperature, vitamin C degradation losses ranged from 0.5 to 7% for organically produced grapefruits and from 3 to 18% for conventional grapefruits in both experiments. In the first experiment at harvest, organically produced grapefruits had 77% higher (p ≤ 0.05) nomilin than conventionally produced grapefruits, whereas grapefruits grown under the conventional production system had 2-fold higher lycopene levels compared to organic grapefruits. In the second experiment, both β-carotene and lycopene levels were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher in conventionally produced grapefruits than in organic grapefruits. Overall, conventional production significantly increased grapefruit carotenoid levels in both experiments. In general, storage temperature (room temperature and 9 °C) had minimal effects on vitamin C degradation but significant effects on the degradation of carotenoids in the first experiment.
author list (cited authors)
Chebrolu, K. K., Jayaprakasha, G. K., Jifon, J., & Patil, B. S.
complete list of authors
Chebrolu, Kranthi K||Jayaprakasha, GK||Jifon, J||Patil, Bhimanagouda S