Measurement of Expanding Oak Wilt Centers in Live Oak Academic Article uri icon


  • Copyright © 1989 by The American Phytopathological Society. Local, tree-to-tree spread of Ceratocystis fagacearum was monitored in live oak (Quercus fusiformis) with sequential, color infrared aerial photography during 1982-1987. A computer-based system for analyzing expanding foci was developed to measure rates of crown defoliation and mortality, as well as expansion distances. Four foci expanded radially an average of 11-16 m/yr, with longer maximum distances of expansion (up to 40 m/yr) commonly occurring. One focus that expanded most rapidly increased from 0.3 to 3.6 ha over 5 yr, affecting 10,774 m2 of crown cover. This was initially the smallest focus, and it had the greatest live oak density. The largest initial focus had a lesser oak density and increased from 1.5 to 6.6 ha, affecting 11,396 m2 of crown cover. Crown survival in 1987 ranged from 4 to 26% for trees that originally showed symptoms in 1982. A strong linear correlation between the area of affected crown cover and total area occupied by each focus was noted. The rapid rates of focus expansion were attributed to a high potential for root grafting and the occurrence of common root systems among clonally propagated live oaks.

author list (cited authors)

  • Appel, D. N.

citation count

  • 17

publication date

  • January 1989