Construction of a quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) BAC library and its use in identifying genes encoding seed storage proteins. Academic Article uri icon


  • Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is adapted to the harsh environments of the Andean Altiplano region. Its seeds have a well-balanced amino acid composition and exceptionally high protein content with respect to human nutrition. Quinoa grain is a staple in the diet of some of the most impoverished people in the world. The plant is an allotetraploid displaying disomic inheritance (2n=4x=36) with a di-haploid genome of 967 Mbp (megabase pair), or 2C=2.01 pg. We constructed two quinoa BAC libraries using BamHI (26,880 clones) and EcoRI (48,000 clones) restriction endonucleases. Cloned inserts in the BamHI library average 113 kb (kilobase) with approximately 2% of the clones lacking inserts, whereas cloned inserts in the EcoRI library average 130 kb and approximately 1% lack inserts. Three plastid genes used as probes of high-density arrayed blots of 73,728 BACs identified approximately 2.8% of the clones as containing plastid DNA inserts. We estimate that the combined quinoa libraries represent at least 9.0 di-haploid nuclear genome equivalents. An average of 12.2 positive clones per probe were identified with 13 quinoa single-copy ESTs as probes of the high-density arrayed blots, suggesting that the estimate of 9.0x coverage of the genome is conservative. Utility of the BAC libraries for gene identification was demonstrated by probing the library with a partial sequence of the 11S globulin seed storage protein gene and identifying multiple positive clones. The presence of the 11S globulin gene in four of the clones was verified by direct comparison with quinoa genomic DNA on a Southern blot. Besides serving as a useful tool for gene identification, the quinoa BAC libraries will be an important resource for physical mapping of the quinoa genome.

published proceedings

  • Theor Appl Genet

author list (cited authors)

  • Stevens, M. R., Coleman, C. E., Parkinson, S. E., Maughan, P. J., Zhang, H., Balzotti, M. R., ... Stevens, J. J.

citation count

  • 31

complete list of authors

  • Stevens, MR||Coleman, CE||Parkinson, SE||Maughan, PJ||Zhang, H-B||Balzotti, MR||Kooyman, DL||Arumuganathan, K||Bonifacio, A||Fairbanks, DJ||Jellen, EN||Stevens, JJ

publication date

  • January 1, 2006 11:11 AM