Inflammatory agonist stimulation and signal pathway of oxidative burst in neonatal chicken heterophils.
Additional Document Info
Heterophils are the predominant polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in poultry. The oxidative burst of activated heterophils, which generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), is one of the first line cellular defenses against invading microorganisms. In this report, the oxidative response of heterophils from neonatal chicks to in vitro stimulation by various inflammatory agonists was investigated using a fluorescence microplate assay. Both non-opsonized formalin-killed Salmonella enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus were able to stimulate heterophil oxidative burst. The phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) was the most potent stimulant for the chicken heterophil oxidative response, whereas, the bacterial cell surface components lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) were less effective. Protein kinase C (PKC) is an essential signaling component regulating heterophil oxidative response to stimulation by PMA, LPS, LTA and S. enteritidis. However, inhibition of PKC did not affect the oxidative response to stimulation by S. aureus, suggesting differential signaling pathway responsible for the activation of oxidative burst by Gram-negative S. enteritidis and Gram-positive S. aureus. Inhibition of mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase p38 and extracellular response kinase (ERK) by SB 203580 and PD 098059, respectively, did not inhibit activated oxidative burst.