Identification of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide motifs that stimulate nitric oxide and cytokine production in avian macrophage and peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
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Unmethylated CpG dinucleotides within specific flanking bases (referred to as CpG motif) are relatively abundant in bacterial DNA and are known to stimulate innate immune responses. In this study, synthetic CpG containing oligodeoxydinucleotides (CpG-ODNs) were evaluated for their ability to stimulate nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production using an avian macrophage cell line (HD11) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Results showed ODNs containing the CpG motif can activate the HD11cells and induce NO production. The optimal CpG-ODN motif for NO induction was GTCGTT. Increasing GTCGTT motifs in CpG-ODN significantly enhanced the stimulatory effect. Deviation of flanking bases of the CpG dinucleotide diminished the stimulatory activity. We also found CpG-ODN differentially stimulated expression of cytokine genes. The most active CpG motif for NO induction was also a strong stimulant for the IL-1beta gene expression in the HD11 cells, whereas different CpG motifs were found to induce IFN-gamma gene expression in PBMC.