Oxidative burst mediated by toll like receptors (TLR) and CD14 on avian heterophils stimulated with bacterial toll agonists. Academic Article uri icon


  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), which are found in the cell walls of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. This study was conducted to determine if TLRs are present on chicken heterophils and if these receptors mediate oxidative burst. Heterophils isolated from neonatal chicks were exposed to gram-negative Salmonella enteritidis (SE), gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (SA), SE-LPS, and SA-LTA and the oxidative burst quantitated by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. SE, SA, SE-LPS, and SA-LTA stimulated a significant increase in oxidative burst from heterophils. Furthermore, we measured the inhibitory effects of polyclonal antibodies on rat CD14, human TLR2 and TLR4 on the oxidative burst of heterophils when stimulated with LPS and LTA. The data suggest that TLR2 and TLR4 mediate LPS-stimulated oxidative burst while CD14 and TLR2 mediate LTA-stimulated oxidative burst in heterophils. This is the first report of PAMPs from gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria interacting with TLRs of avian heterophils.

published proceedings

  • Dev Comp Immunol

altmetric score

  • 3

author list (cited authors)

  • Farnell, M. B., Crippen, T. L., He, H., Swaggerty, C. L., & Kogut, M. H.

citation count

  • 74

complete list of authors

  • Farnell, Morgan B||Crippen, Tawni L||He, Haiqi||Swaggerty, Christina L||Kogut, Michael H

publication date

  • January 2003