Ral and Rheb GTPase activating proteins integrate mTOR and GTPase signaling in aging, autophagy, and tumor cell invasion.
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Diverse environmental cues converge on and are integrated by the mTOR signaling network to control cellular growth and homeostasis. The mammalian Tsc1-Tsc2 GTPase activating protein (GAP) heterodimer is a critical negative regulator of Rheb and mTOR activation. The RalGAP-RalGAP heterodimer shares sequence and structural similarity with Tsc1-Tsc2. Unexpectedly, we observed that C.elegans expresses orthologs for the Rheb andRalA/B GTPases and for RalGAP/, but not Tsc1/2. This prompted our investigation to determine whether RalGAPs additionally modulate mTOR signaling. We determined that C.elegans RalGAP loss decreased lifespan, consistent with a Tsc-likefunction. Additionally, RalGAP suppression in mammalian cells caused RalB-selective activation and Sec5- and exocyst-dependent engagement of mTORC1 and suppression of autophagy. Unexpectedly, we also found that Tsc1-Tsc2 loss activated RalA/B independently of Rheb-mTOR signaling. Finally, RalGAP suppression caused mTORC1-dependent pancreatic tumor cell invasion. Our findings identify an unexpected crosstalk and integration of the Ral and mTOR signaling networks.
author list (cited authors)
Martin, T. D., Chen, X., Kaplan, R., Saltiel, A. R., Walker, C. L., Reiner, D. J., & Der, C. J.
complete list of authors
Martin, Timothy D||Chen, Xiao-Wei||Kaplan, Rebecca EW||Saltiel, Alan R||Walker, Cheryl L||Reiner, David J||Der, Channing J