Oxidation of caffeine by acid‐activated ferrate(VI): Effect of ions and natural organic matter Academic Article uri icon


  • © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Caffeine (CAF) is the most commonly consumed stimulant and frequently detected emerging pollutant in influents and effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and surface waters. Acid-activated ferrate(VI) (FeVI, Fe(VI)) oxidizes CAF in water in seconds to minutes at three times lower molar ratio of Fe(VI) to CAF than oxidative transformation observed in hours by nonactivated Fe(VI) (8.0 vs. 25.0). CAF oxidation by acid-activated Fe(VI) is not affected by ionic constituents of water. Organic components of natural organic matter (NOM) and secondary effluent wastewater (SE) decrease efficiency of CAF transformation. However, acid-activated Fe(VI) could mineralize other organics present in both NOM and SE as indicated by the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal. Comparatively, no mineralization was seen without activation of Fe(VI). Four oxidized products of CAF were identified by a liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry technique. The reaction pathways of the oxidation of CAF by activated Fe(VI) have been proposed. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2017.

author list (cited authors)

  • Manoli, K., Nakhla, G., Ray, A. K., & Sharma, V. K.

citation count

  • 17

publication date

  • August 2017