Viral Interplay with the Host Sumoylation System
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Viruses have evolved elaborate means to regulate diverse cellular pathways in order to create a cellular environment that facilitates viral survival and reproduction. This includes enhancing viral macromolecular synthesis and assembly, as well as preventing antiviral responses, including intrinsic, innate, and adaptive immunity. There are numerous mechanisms by which viruses mediate their effects on the host cell, and this includes targeting various cellular post-translational modification systems, including sumoylation. The wide-ranging impact of sumoylation on cellular processes such as transcriptional regulation, apoptosis, stress response, and cell cycle control makes it an attractive target for viral dysregulation. To date, proteins from both RNA and DNA virus families have been shown to be modified by SUMO conjugation, and this modification appears critical for viral protein function. More interestingly, members of the several viral families have been shown to modulate sumoylation, including papillomaviruses, adenoviruses , herpesviruses, orthomyxoviruses, filoviruses , and picornaviruses . This chapter will focus on mechanisms by which sumoylation both impacts human viruses and is used by viruses to promote viral infection and disease.
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