Fast kinetics of magnesium monochloride cations in interlayer-expanded titanium disulfide for magnesium rechargeable batteries.
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Magnesium rechargeable batteries potentially offer high-energy density, safety, and low cost due to the ability to employ divalent, dendrite-free, and earth-abundant magnesium metal anode. Despite recent progress, further development remains stagnated mainly due to the sluggish scission of magnesium-chloride bond and slow diffusion of divalent magnesium cations in cathodes. Here we report a battery chemistry that utilizes magnesium monochloride cations in expanded titanium disulfide. Combined theoretical modeling, spectroscopic analysis, and electrochemical study reveal fast diffusion kinetics of magnesium monochloride cations without scission of magnesium-chloride bond. The battery demonstrates the reversible intercalation of 1 and 1.7 magnesium monochloride cations per titanium at 25 and 60C, respectively, corresponding to up to 400mAhg-1 capacity based on the mass of titanium disulfide. The large capacity accompanies with excellent rate and cycling performances even at room temperature, opening up possibilities for a variety of effective intercalation hosts for multivalent-ion batteries.Magnesium rechargeable batteries potentially offer high-energy density, safety, and low cost. Here the authors show a battery that reversibly intercalates magnesium monochloride cations with excellent rate and cycle performances in addition to the large capacity.