Airway Evaluation and Flexible Endoscopic Procedures in Dogs and Cats: Laryngoscopy, Transtracheal Wash, Tracheobronchoscopy, and Bronchoalveolar Lavage
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Flexible endoscopy is a valuable diagnostic approach to the upper and lower respiratory tract, because it allows direct visualization and sample collection. Techniques requiring a range of specialized equipment and varying levels of experience have been developed to access and evaluate each anatomic region. Familiarity with appropriate indications for each procedure and normal appearance, cytology, and culture results from each region will enhance diagnostic success.
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