The effect of changes in muscle function and bone growth on muscle migration. Academic Article uri icon


  • The elastic sleeve model of the periosteum of a long bone presents the periosteum as a structure which, because it is attached to the epiphyses rather than the diaphysis, expands interstitially and equally at all points as the bone grows at its ends. Structures attached to the periosteum are seen as essentially passive hitchhikers on the expanding periosteum. Two corollaries of this model are tested here. First, that changes in the magnitude or direction of the force that an attached structure exerts on the periosteum do not affect the migration of the structure. Second, that changes in the proportion of growth that occur at each end of the bone do not affect the migration of attached structures. Experiments performed on rabbits to test these corollaries include muscle paralysis, muscle transection, changes in the direction pull of a muscle, and epiphysiodesis. The results are in agreement with the hypotheses. This model should have applicability to functional and comparative anatomy, since it postulates that differences in positions of attachment of muscles and ligaments to bones reflect underlying genetic differences (phylogeny) rather than the effects of differences in behavior of the animal (ontogeny).

published proceedings

  • Am J Phys Anthropol

author list (cited authors)

  • Grant, P. G., Buschang, P. H., Drolet, D. W., & Pickerell, C.

citation count

  • 16

complete list of authors

  • Grant, PG||Buschang, PH||Drolet, DW||Pickerell, C

publication date

  • April 1981