Principal components of craniofacial growth for white Philadelphia males and females between 6 and 22 years of age.
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Three principal components, explaining 83 percent of the common variation for 999 males and females between 6 and 22 years of age, describe ontogenetic patterns of relationship for seven facial dimensions, including sella-nasion, sella-basion, nasion-prosthion, infradentale-menton, articulare-gnathion, gonion-gnathion, and articulare-gonion. Accounting for 65 percent of the variation, a general component associated with both size and shape defines size-required changes in proprotion during growth. Independent patterns of regional variation associated with alveolar remodeling (second component) and condylar growth (third component) describe specific sources of facial modification. Mean multivariate component scores reveal that sexual dimorphism, which progressively favors males over females with age, results from accumulating differences in size and related proportional changes in shape. The timing of the condylar growth spurt, as evident from variation in ramus height, produces secondary dimorphism which diminishes following the adolescent phase in males. Significant age effects are indicated for alveolar remodeling and mandibular growth of the condyle.
author list (cited authors)
Buschang, P. H., Nass, G. G., & Walker, G. F
complete list of authors
Buschang, PH||Nass, GG||Walker, GF