Condylar growth and glenoid fossa displacement during childhood and adolescence.
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This study evaluated age and gender differences in the growth of the mandibular condyle and displacement of the glenoid fossa. The results pertain to longitudinal samples of untreated French Canadians, including 118 children and 155 adolescents. Childhood and adolescent growth were described for girls aged between 6 and 10 years and 9 and 13 years, respectively, and for boys aged between 8 and 12 years and 11 and 15 years, respectively. Four-year growth changes of the cephalometric landmarks condylion and articulare were evaluated. Mandibular and cranial/cranial base structural superimpositions were used to assess condylar growth and fossa displacement, respectively. The results showed that the condyle grew between 0.8 and 1.3 mm posteriorly and between 9.0 and 10.7 mm superiorly over the 4-year periods; the articulare landmark showed significantly more posterior and less superior growth than the condylion landmark. Relative to the cranial base reference structures, the fossa was displaced between 1.8 and 2.1 mm posteriorly and between 1.0 and 1.8 mm inferiorly. The articulare showed significantly more inferior movement than the condylion. Boys showed significantly greater superior condylar growth during adolescence than during childhood. The glenoid fossa demonstrated greater posterior and inferior displacement during adolescence than during childhood.