Effects of intentional damage of the roots and surrounding structures with miniscrew implants.
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INTRODUCTION: The purposes of the study were to evaluate the immediate damage to roots and periodontal structures after initial miniscrew implant (MSI) placement and the short- and long-term damage after MSIs were left in situ. METHODS: The roots of the maxillary second, third, and fourth premolars of 7 mature beagle dogs were randomly assigned to undergo immediate, short-term (left for 6 weeks), or long-term (left for 12 weeks) damage. Intentional damage was inflicted with self-tapping screws (1.8 x 8 mm) placed with a stent. Alternating tetracycline and calcein labels were administered at 6-week intervals. Undecalcified sections were stained and evaluated histologically to determine the extent of damage; healing was evaluated by using fluorescence labels. RESULTS: Histology showed damage to 73.8% of the teeth, ranging from displacement of bone into the periodontal ligament to invasion of the pulp chamber. Displacement of bone into the periodontal ligament and direct damage to the periodontal ligament occurred in 3 (7.2%) instances. Damage was isolated to the cementum of 8 (19.0%) teeth, whereas damage occurred in the dentin of 11 (26.2%) teeth. Loss of bone in the furcation was evident in 3 (7.2%) teeth, and severe damage into the pulp occurred in 6 (14.2%) teeth. No differences in the amounts of damage were evident between the immediate, short-, and long-term groups. Healing often occurred with cementum around the unloaded MSIs. CONCLUSIONS: Extensive damage can be caused by MSIs, with little to no differences evident over time. Unloaded MSIs that remain in contact with roots of teeth can show varying degrees of healing.