Effects of screw and host factors on insertion torque and pullout strength.
Additional Document Info
OBJECTIVE: To experimentally study the effects of altering implant length, outer diameter, cortical bone thickness, and cortical bone density on the primary stability of orthodontic miniscrew implants (MSIs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Maximum insertion torque (IT) and pullout strength (POS) of 216 MSIs were measured in synthetic bone with different cortical densities (0.64 g/cc or 0.55 g/cc) and cortical thicknesses (1 mm or 2 mm). Three MSIs were evaluated: 6-mm long/1.75-mm outer diameter, 3-mm long/1.75-mm outer diameter, and 3-mm long/2.0-mm outer diameter. To test POS, a vertical force was applied at the rate of 5 mm/min until failure occurred. RESULTS: The 6-mm MSIs displayed significantly (P < .001) higher IT and POS than the 3-mm MSIs did. The 3-mm MSIs with 2.0-mm outer diameters showed significantly higher (P < .001) IT and POS than the 3-mm MSIs with 1.75-mm outer diameters. The IT and POS were significantly (P < .001) greater for the MSIs placed in thicker and denser cortical bone. CONCLUSION: Both outer diameter and length affect the stability of MSIs. Increases in cortical bone thickness and cortical bone density increase the primary stability of the MSIs.