Protein Resistant Polymeric Biomaterials.
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Toward improving implantable medical devices as well as diagnostic performance, the development of polymeric biomaterials having resistance to proteins remains a priority. Herein, we highlight key strategies reported in the recent literature that have relied upon improvement of surface hydrophilicity via direct surface modification methods or with bulk modification using surface modifying additives (SMAs). These approaches have utilized a variety of techniques to incorporate the surface hydrophilization agent, including physisorption, hydrogel network formation, surface grafting, layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly and blending base polymers with SMAs. While poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) remains the gold standard, new alternatives have emerged such as polyglycidols, poly(2-oxazoline)s (POx), polyzwitterions, and amphiphilic block copolymers. While these new strategies provide encouraging results, the need for improved correlation between in vitro and in vivo protein resistance is critical. This may be achieved by employing complex protein solutions as well as strides to enhance the sensitivity of protein adsorption measurements.