Quantum catalysis: The modeling of catalytic transition states
Additional Document Info
We present an introduction to the computational modeling of transition states for catalytic reactions. We consider both homogeneous catalysis and heterogeneous catalysis, including organometallic catalysts, enzymes, zeolites and metal oxides, and metal surfaces. We summarize successes, promising approaches, and problems. We attempt to delineate the key issues and summarize the current status of our understanding of these issues. Topics covered include basis sets, classical trajectories, cluster calculations, combined quantum-mechanical/molecular-mechanical (QM/MM) methods, density functional theory, electrostatics, empirical valence bond theory, free energies of activation, frictional effects and nonequilibrium solvation, kinetic isotope effects, localized orbitals at surfaces, the reliability of correlated electronic structure calculations, the role of d orbitals in transition metals, transition state geometries, and tunneling.