Multiple solutions in energy balance climate models Academic Article uri icon


  • A review of multiple solutions in energy balance climate models is presented. The paper begins with the zero dimensional models with ice cap albedo feedback and shows that three solutions exist by elementary algebra. A proof of the slope stability theorem is presented for this case. Next, the one dimensional models are covered with special attention to the multiple branch structure. The appropriate form of the slope stability theorem is recounted for this case. Finally, an account of some recent studies of multiple solutions in seasonal climate models is presented. These studies indicate that some rather exotic behavior occurs when land masses are near the poles. In particular, cases with snow-free versus snow covered areas over the summer can occur as different solution branches for the same external conditions. 1990, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.. All rights reserved.

published proceedings

  • Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology

author list (cited authors)

  • North, G. R.

citation count

  • 15

complete list of authors

  • North, Gerald R

publication date

  • August 1990