Xenotransplantation of pediatric low grade gliomas confirms the enrichment of BRAF V600E mutation and preservation of CDKN2A deletion in a novel orthotopic xenograft mouse model of progressive pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma Academic Article uri icon


  • To identify cellular and molecular changes that driver pediatric low grade glioma (PLGG) progression, we analyzed putative cancer stem cells (CSCs) and evaluated key biological changes in a novel and progressive patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) mouse model. Flow cytometric analysis of 22 PLGGs detected CD133+ (<1.5%) and CD15+ (20.7 ± 28.9%) cells, and direct intra-cranial implantation of 25 PLGGs led to the development of 1 PDOX model from a grade II pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA). While CSC levels did not correlate with patient tumor progression, neurosphere formation and in vivo tumorigenicity, the PDOX model, IC-3635PXA, reproduced key histological features of the original tumor. Similar to the patient tumor that progressed and recurred, IC-3635PXA also progressed during serial in vivo subtransplantations (4 passages), exhibiting increased tumor take rate, elevated proliferation, loss of mature glial marker (GFAP), accumulation of GFAP-/Vimentin+ cells, enhanced local invasion, distant perivascular migration, and prominent reactive gliosis in normal mouse brains. Molecularly, xenograft cells with homozygous deletion of CDKN2A shifted from disomy chromosome 9 to trisomy chromosome 9; and BRAF V600E mutation allele frequency increased (from 28% in patient tumor to 67% in passage III xenografts). In vitro drug screening identified 2/7 BRAF V600E inhibitors and 2/9 BRAF inhibitors that suppressed cell proliferation. In summary, we showed that PLGG tumorigenicity was low despite the presence of putative CSCs, and our data supported GFAP-/Vimentin+ cells, CDKN2A homozygous deletion in trisomy chromosome 9 cells, and BRAF V600E mutation as candidate drivers of tumor progression in the PXA xenografts.

author list (cited authors)

  • Kogiso, M., Qi, L., Lindsay, H., Huang, Y., Zhao, X., Liu, Z., ... Li, X.

publication date

  • January 1, 2017 11:11 AM