Analysis of Anodic Oxide Films on Niobium
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Anodic oxide films were grown on niobium in the presence of sodium tungstate. Two sample sets were grown at varying temperatures, and one set was grown to varying terminal voltages. The resulting films were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). The XPS results show a close association of the sodium and tungstate species at the surface. Depth profiling shows the reduction of niobium oxide and the steady decrease in the amount of incorporated sodium with increased depth. The RBS data show multiple, overlapping peaks in the tungsten region. The layered structure is voltage dependent. 1989, American Chemical Society. All rights reserved.