Characteristics of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa induced porcine sepsis model for multi-organ metabolic flux measurements.
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Survival of sepsis is related to loss of muscle mass. Therefore, it is imperative to further define and understand the basic alterations in nutrient metabolism in order to improve targeted sepsis nutritional therapies. We developed and evaluated a controlled hyperdynamic severe sepsis pig model that can be used for in vivo multi-organ metabolic studies in a conscious state. In this catheterized pig model, bacteremia was induced intravenously with 109 CFU/h Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) in 13 pigs for 18 h. Both the PA and control (nine) animals received fluid resuscitation and were continuously monitored. We examined in detail their hemodynamics, blood gases, clinical chemistry, inflammation, histopathology and organ plasma flows. The systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) diagnostic scoring system was used to determine the clinical septic state. Within 6 h from the start of PA infusion, a septic state developed, as was reflected by hyperthermia and cardiovascular changes. After 12 h of PA infusion, severe sepsis was diagnosed. Disturbed cardiovascular function, decreased portal drained viscera plasma flow (control: 37.6 ± 4.6 mL/kg body weight (bw)/min; PA 20.3 ± 2.6 mL/kg bw/min, P < 0.001), as well as moderate villous injury in the small intestines were observed. No lung, kidney or liver failure was observed. Acute phase C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels did not change in the PA group. However, significant metabolic changes such as enhanced protein breakdown, hypocalcemia and hypocholesterolemia were found. In conclusion, PA-induced bacteremia in a catheterized pig is a clinically relevant model for acute severe sepsis and enables the study of complex multi-organ metabolisms.
author list (cited authors)
Ten Have, G., Deutz, R., Engelen, M., Wolfe, R. R., & Deutz, N.