A New Technique to Characterize Fracture Density Using Neutron Porosity Logs Enhanced by Electrically-Transported Contrast Agents
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Copyright © 2017 Society of Petroleum Engineers. Fracture-density evaluation has always been challenging for the petroleum industry, although it is a required characteristic for reliable reservoir characterization. Production can be directly controlled by fracture density, especially in tight reservoirs. Previous publications showed that use of high thermal neutron-capture cross-sectional (HTNCC) contrast agents can enhance the sensitivity of neutron logs to the presence of fractures. However, all these studies focus on locating the proppants. In this paper, we introduce a method of injecting electrically transported charged boron carbide (B4C) contrast agents to naturally fractured formations to enhance the propagation of the contrast agents into the secondaryfracture (natural and induced) network by use of an externally applied electric field and to characterize the fracture density in the unpropped region by use of the enhanced neutron porosity logs. We perform numerical simulations to validate the feasibility of the proposed technique. A physical model derived from electrophoretic velocity and material-balance formulations is proposed and solved to simulate the spatial distribution of contrast agents. Furthermore, we simulate neutron porosity logs by solving the neutron-diffusion equation, which allows a fast analysis for the proposed technique. The simulation results confirmed that an external electric field can significantly enhance the transport of charged contrast agents into the secondary-fracture network. Sensitivity analysis revealed that increasing particle ζ-potential can efficiently decrease the transport time. Furthermore, we applied the introduced technique on synthetic cases with variable secondary-fracture density ranging from 1 to 8%. The relative variation in the simulated neutron porosity before and after applying the electric potential field was up to 50% in a formation with 8% fracture density after applying an electric field for 6 hours. The proposed technique can potentially enable application of neutron porosity logs in fracture characterization, including assessment of secondary-fracture density, if combined with other well logs.
author list (cited authors)
Tang, H., Killough, J. E., Heidari, Z., & Sun, Z.