PhosphotriesteraseA Promising Candidate for Use in Detoxification of Organophosphates
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The effect of phosphotriesterase (PTE) on cholinesterase (ChE) activities was studied with exposures to different organophosphates in mice. Paraoxon (PO) (1.0 mg/kg, ip) almost totally inhibited serum ChE activity. This activity, however, recovered to the normal level within 24 hr. The PTE pretreatment (16.8 U/animal, 2.5 g/10 g body wt, iv 10 min before the organophosphate) accelerated this reactivation. The same phenomenon was also seen in vitro. In vitro with human serum, there was only minimal reactivation of the inhibited ChE. PTE, however, reactivated it significantly. The PTE-pretreated mice (168 U/animal, 30 g/10 g body wt, iv) tolerated even 50 mg/kg of PO without showing any remarkable signs of intoxication. In PTE-untreated animals, however, PO doses as low as 1.0 and 1.5 mg/kg caused severe signs of poisoning. PTE (16.8 U/animal, 4 g/10 g body wt, iv) reduced the inhibition of brain and serum ChE activities after PO and diisopropyl fluorophosphate exposure. In sarin and soman intoxications, PTE decreased only slightly the inhibition of ChE activities. The results indicate that PTE pretreatment given iv prevents the inhibition of ChE activities after certain organophosphates and it also hastens the recovery of activities after PO poisoning. 1994 by the Society of Toxicology.