Deep and surface threats: conceptual and practical implications for crisis vs. problem Academic Article uri icon


  • This essay considers the importance of considering the reputational and operational threats posed by an event when trying to assess the event. It is argued that a true crisis must have an operational component. The paper also explores the issue of when certain response strategies will worsen an operational threat and how that acts as a constraint for selecting crisis response strategies. 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

published proceedings

  • Public Relations Review

author list (cited authors)

  • Coombs, W. T.

citation count

  • 39

complete list of authors

  • Coombs, W Timothy

publication date

  • January 2002