Deep and surface threats: conceptual and practical implications for crisis vs. problem
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This essay considers the importance of considering the reputational and operational threats posed by an event when trying to assess the event. It is argued that a true crisis must have an operational component. The paper also explores the issue of when certain response strategies will worsen an operational threat and how that acts as a constraint for selecting crisis response strategies. 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.
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