Single-nanowire raman microprobe studies of doping-, temperature-, and voltage-induced metal-insulator transitions of W(x)V(1-x)O2 nanowires.
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Considerable recent research interest has focused on mapping the structural phase diagrams of anisotropic VO(2) nanobeams as model systems for elucidating single-domain behavior within strongly correlated electronic materials, to examine in particular the coupling of lattice and orbital degrees of freedom. Nevertheless, the role of substitutional doping in altering the phase stabilities of competing ground states of VO(2) remains underexplored. In this study, we use individual nanowire Raman microprobe mapping to examine the structural phase progressions underlying the metal-insulator transitions of solution-grown W(x)V(1-x)O(2) nanowires. The structural phase progressions have been monitored for three distinctive modes of inducing the electronic metal-insulator phase transition: as a function of (a) W doping at constant temperature, (b) varying temperature for specific W dopant concentrations, and (c) varying applied voltage for specific W dopant concentrations. Our results suggest the establishment of a coexistence regime within individual nanowires wherein M1 and R phases simultaneously exist before the percolation threshold is reached and the nanowire becomes entirely metallic. Such a coexistence regime has been found to exist during both temperature- and voltage-induced transitions. No evidence of an M2 phase is observed upon inducing the electronic phase transition by any of the three distinctive methods (temperature, doping, and applied voltage), suggesting that substitutional tungsten doping stabilizes the M1 phase over its M2 counterpart and further corroborating that the latter phase is not required to mediate M1R transformations.