Friend-zone with benefits: The parasocial advertising of Kim Kardashian Academic Article uri icon


  • 2012, 2012 Taylor & Francis. This research focuses on the social-media-driven convention of advertising, and seeks to analyze the type of communication that occurs between celebrity endorsers and audiences within social media. Kim Kardashian is the most current and successful celebrity endorser. A content analysis including posts and responses from April and May 2011 is used to analyze the type of advertising messages and celebrity/audience interaction. The goal of the study is to establish whether Parasocial Interaction could improve the effectiveness of advertising. Due to findings that yielded a high amount of endorsements embedded into personal stories, as well as female approval for those posts, it can be stated that Parasocial Interaction takes place between the celebrity and audiences. It can also be considered as an advertising vehicle, in terms of positive audience feedback. The results imply that advertisers should utilize Parasocial Interaction to conduct successful advertising.

published proceedings

  • Journal of Marketing Communications

altmetric score

  • 24.5

author list (cited authors)

  • Lueck, J. A.

citation count

  • 56

complete list of authors

  • Lueck, Jennifer Anette

publication date

  • March 2015