Leadership as Organizing Academic Article uri icon


  • Leadership is a central concept in both communication and organizational studies. Despite the centrality of leadership in both disciplines, few leadership questionnaires have been developed in the context of ongoing and systematic research programs. This article reviews and critiques four recent instruments that have been developed to measure organizational leadership: (a) Graen's Leader-Member Exchange measure, (b) Bass's Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, (c) Podsakoff, Todor, and Skov's Measure of Reward and Punishment, and (d) Kerr and Jermier's Substitutes for Leadership Scales. The reliability and validity of the instruments are assessed and directions for future research are suggested.

published proceedings

  • Management Communication Quarterly

author list (cited authors)

  • Barge, J. K., & Schlueter, D. W.

citation count

  • 16

complete list of authors

  • Barge, J Kevin||Schlueter, David W

publication date

  • May 1991