A Latent Class Analysis of Victimization Among Middle and High School Students in California Academic Article uri icon


  • , Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. School victimization is associated with negative social-emotional outcomes and risky behaviors. Most studies have provided definitions and measures of victimization, depicting a limited characterization of victimization in schools. More nuanced analyses of school victimization are needed to assess the heterogeneous pattern of victimization in schools. The current study explored distinct victimization configurations in a diverse sample of 418,483 middle and high school students in California, utilizing latent class analyses to account for type and frequency of victimization. The results uncover four classes of victimization, including frequent verbal, physical, and sexual victimization; occasional verbal and physical victimization; verbal and sexual victimization; and no victimization. Older age was associated with a lower likelihood of frequent verbal, sexual, and physical victimization and African American youth were more likely to be classified in this class. Females were more likely to be in the verbal and sexual victimization class than males.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Berkowitz, R., De Pedro, K. T., & Gilreath, T. D.

citation count

  • 17

publication date

  • July 2015