Questioning the HIV-AIDS Hypothesis: 30Years of Dissent.
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Since 1984, when the hypothesis that HIV-causes-AIDS was announced, many scholars have questioned the premise and offered alternative explanations. Thirty years later, competing propositions as well as questioning of the mainstream hypothesis persist, often supported by prominent scientists. This article synthesizes the most salient questions raised, alongside theories proposing non-viral causes for AIDS. The synthesis is organized according to four categories of data believed to support the HIV-AIDS hypothesis: retroviral molecular markers; transmission electron microscopy (EM) images of retroviral particles; efficacy of anti-retroviral drugs; and epidemiological data. Despite three decades of concerted investments in the mainstream hypothesis, the lingering questions and challenges synthesized herein offer public health professionals an opportunity to reflect on their assumptions and practices regarding HIV/AIDS. The HIV/AIDS hypothesis is one hell of a mistake, wrote Kary Mullis in 1996 [(1), p. 14]. Mullis Nobel Laureate in Chemistry, 1993 and other distinguished scientists have claimed the HIV-causes-AIDS hypothesis is false, unproductive, and unethical. They have done so since 1984, when the hypothesis was proposed. Thirty years after countless studies, resources, and attempts to cure have been poured into the HIV-AIDS hypothesis, it may be fruitful to ask: What happened to those views and voices that once disagreed? Have the past three decades, with their scientific, technological, and public health developments, been sufficient to convince critics of the hypothesis value? Have these advances been able to silence the questioning? Here, I synthesize the main criticisms aimed at the HIV-AIDS hypothesis, alongside select unorthodox1 theories proposing non-viral cause(s) for AIDS, to argue: far from being condemned to extinction, competing explanations for, and thorough questioning of the mainstream premise persist. Perhaps better known by the lay public than by health professionals, many explanations are, in fact, attracting a growing number of sympathizers. To support the argument, I employ historical research and data synthesis methods. I utilize, as data, trade and professional publications in tandem with authoritative scientific sources. It is important to note that my purpose is not to review the state of the science regarding HIV/AIDS, nor to persuade readers to reject the mainstream hypothesis. Instead, I aim to expose readers to the persisting controversies, and to motivate them to raise questions of their own. Ultimately, then, this article invites the public health workforce to reflect on prevailing assumptions and practices regarding HIV-AIDS. Reflecting on assumptions and practices represents a central task for public health professionals; a vital step to ensure their (our) practice continually grounds itself in the most rigorous ethical standards (3).