Evaluation of Reflux Condensation Heat Transfer of Steam-Air Mixtures under Gas-Liquid Countercurrent Flow in a Vertical Tube Academic Article uri icon


  • Reflux condensation in steam generator (SG) is one of the major heat removal mechanisms in a loss of residual heat removal (RHR) system event in mid-loop operation during a pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant outage. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of reflux condensation in SG U-tubes, the condensation heat transfer characteristics in the presence of a non-condensable gas must be clarified. Local temperature data were previously measured for steam-air mixtures under gas-liquid countercurrent flow, in a vertical tube of inner diameter 19.3 mm. In this study, local reflux heat transfer coefficients were calculated by evaluating steam flow rate profile along the tube at low heat fluxes assuming saturated steam conditions and empirical correlations were derived. The correlations are valid over a range 2–9,000W/m2-K for 0.1–0.4MPa, 0.014–0.2 air mass fraction. The axial distributions of the steam—air mixture temperatures calculated using the correlation agreed well with the measured results and validity of evaluation methods and the correlation were verified. © 2005 Taylor & Francis Group, Ltd.

author list (cited authors)

  • NAGAE, T., MURASE, M., Tiejun, W. U., & VIEROW, K.

citation count

  • 10

publication date

  • January 2005