Gasliquid countercurrent two-phase flow in a PWR hot leg: A comprehensive research review Academic Article uri icon


  • Research into gas-liquid countercurrent two-phase flow in a model of pressurized water reactor (PWR) hot leg has been carried out over the last several decades. An extensive experimental data base has been accumulated from these studies, leading to the development of phenomenological correlations and scaling parameters of the countercurrent flow limitation (CCFL). However, most of the proposed correlations apply under a relatively narrow range of conditions, generally limited to the test section conditions and/or geometry. Moreover the development of mechanistic models based on the underlying physical processes has been limited. In contrast to this mechanistic form of modelling, the implementation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques has also been pursued, but the considerable robust three-dimensional (3D) closure relations for this application remain an unachieved goal due to lack of detailed phenomenological knowledge and consequent application of empirical one-dimensional experimental correlations to the multidimensional problem. This paper presents a comprehensive review of research work on countercurrent gas-liquid two-phase flow in a PWR hot leg and provides direction regarding future research on this topic. In the introductory section, the problems facing current research are described. In the following sections, recent experimental as well as theoretical research achievements are overviewed. In the last section, the problems that remain unsolved are discussed, along with some concluding remarks. It was found that only limited theoretical developments exist in the literature, however highly reliable experimental data are needed to support this effort. Additional work, both analytical and experimental, needs to be carried out on the effects of mass transfer on countercurrent flow limitation to improve the existing correlations and analytical models. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

published proceedings

  • Nuclear Engineering and Design

author list (cited authors)

  • Deendarlianto, .., Hhne, T., Lucas, D., & Vierow, K.

citation count

  • 23

complete list of authors

  • Höhne, Thomas||Lucas, Dirk||Vierow, Karen

publication date

  • February 2012