D-pinitol augments whole body creatine retention in man Academic Article uri icon


  • Previous research has indicated that creatine retention is influenced by the intramuscular creatine concentration, and extracellular concentrations of glucose and insulin. The purpose of this study was to examine whether co-ingestion of D-pinitol (plant extract with insulin sensitizing characteristics) with creatine affects whole body creatine retention. Twenty male subjects with no history of creatine supplementation participated in this study. Subjects donated 24-hr urine samples for 4 days. After an initial control day designed to determine normal daily creatine excretion rates, subjects were matched according to body mass and randomly assigned to ingest in a single blind manner either a placebo (P=4 x 5 g of dextrose), creatine monohydrate (CM=4 5 g), CM with low dose D-pinitol (LP=4 5 g creatine + 2 0.5 g D-pinitol), or CM with high dose D-pinitol (HP=4 5 g creatine + 4 0.5 g D-pinitol) for 3 days. Additionally, another group ingested 2 0.5 g D-pinitol for 5-d followed by ingesting 4 5 g CM + 2 0.5 g D-pinitol for 3-d (Pre-P). Creatine retention was estimated by subtracting total urinary creatine excretion from total supplemental creatine intake over the 3-d period. Data were analyzed by ANOVA. Results revealed that whole body creatine retention over the 3 day loading period was significantly greater in the LP and Pre-P groups (P=00; CM=36.69; LP=49.73; HP=36.713; Pre P=46.76 g, p=0.001). This extrapolated to a significantly greater percentage of creatine retention in the LP and Pre-P groups (P=00; CM=6115; LP=835; HP=6122; Pre P=789%, p=0.001). Results suggest that ingesting creatine with low doses of D-Pinitol may augment whole body creatine retention in a similar manner as has been reported with co-ingestion of high levels of carbohydrate or carbohydrate and protein. Additional research is warranted to investigate the possible influence that D-pinitol may have on insulin sensitivity and whole body creatine retention.

published proceedings

  • Journal of Exercise Physiology Online

author list (cited authors)

  • Greenwood, M., Kreider, R. B., Rasmussen, C., Almada, A. L., & Earnest, C. P.

complete list of authors

  • Greenwood, M||Kreider, RB||Rasmussen, C||Almada, AL||Earnest, CP

publication date

  • November 2001