Positive and negative emotionality: trajectories across six years and relations with social competence. Academic Article uri icon


  • The goals of the present study were to examine (1) the mean-level stability and differential stability of children's positive emotional intensity, negative emotional intensity, expressivity, and social competence from early elementary school-aged to early adolescence, and (2) the associations between the trajectories of children's emotionality and social functioning. Using four waves of longitudinal data (with assessments 2 years apart), parents and teachers of children (199 kindergarten through third grade children at the first assessment) rated children's emotion-related responding and social competence. For all constructs, there was evidence of mean-level decline with age and stability in individual differences in rank ordering. Based on age-centered growth-to-growth curve analyses, the results indicated that children who had a higher initial status on positive emotional intensity, negative emotional intensity, and expressivity had a steeper decline in their social skills across time. These findings provide insight into the stability and association of emotion-related constructs to social competence across the elementary and middle school years.

published proceedings

  • Emotion

altmetric score

  • 12.25

author list (cited authors)

  • Sallquist, J. V., Eisenberg, N., Spinrad, T. L., Reiser, M., Hofer, C., Zhou, Q., Liew, J., & Eggum, N.

citation count

  • 91

complete list of authors

  • Sallquist, Julie Vaughan||Eisenberg, Nancy||Spinrad, Tracy L||Reiser, Mark||Hofer, Claire||Zhou, Qing||Liew, Jeffrey||Eggum, Natalie

publication date

  • February 2009