Many neuropsychological paradigms were initially based on adults with documented brain damage. In the past two decades, interest in pediatric neuropsychology has increased. This has been motivated by the belief that more comprehensive evaluation and subsequent differential diagnosis would lead to better treatment and educational programs for children. There continues to be conflicting views in school psychology regarding the appropriateness and usefulness of neuropsychological assessment in conjunction with the traditional psychoeducational battery used in the schools. Issues relating to this controversy, including validity and reliability of neuropsychological measures, information gained from neuropsychological assessment, and the relevancy of this information to specific populations, are discussed. Implications for future research related to the limits of neuropsychological assessment in the schools are highlighted.