Source apportionment of PM2.5 in North India using source-oriented air quality models. Academic Article uri icon


  • In recent years, severe pollution events were observed frequently in India especially at its capital, New Delhi. However, limited studies have been conducted to understand the sources to high pollutant concentrations for designing effective control strategies. In this work, source-oriented versions of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) were applied to quantify the contributions of eight source types (energy, industry, residential, on-road, off-road, agriculture, open burning and dust) to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and its components including primary PM (PPM) and secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) i.e. sulfate, nitrate and ammonium ions, in Delhi and three surrounding cities, Chandigarh, Lucknow and Jaipur in 2015. PPM mass is dominated by industry and residential activities (>60%). Energy (39%) and industry (45%) sectors contribute significantly to PPM at south of Delhi, which reach a maximum of 200g/m3 during winter. Unlike PPM, SIA concentrations from different sources are more heterogeneous. High SIA concentrations (25g/m3) at south Delhi and central Uttar Pradesh were mainly attributed to energy, industry and residential sectors. Agriculture is more important for SIA than PPM and contributions of on-road and open burning to SIA are also higher than to PPM. Residential sector contributes highest to total PM2.5 (80g/m3), followed by industry (70g/m3) in North India. Energy and agriculture contribute 25g/m3 and 16g/m3 to total PM2.5, while SOA contributes <5g/m3. In Delhi, industry and residential activities contribute to 80% of total PM2.5.

published proceedings

  • Environ Pollut

altmetric score

  • 5.75

author list (cited authors)

  • Guo, H., Kota, S. H., Sahu, S. K., Hu, J., Ying, Q. i., Gao, A., & Zhang, H.

citation count

  • 98

complete list of authors

  • Guo, Hao||Kota, Sri Harsha||Sahu, Shovan Kumar||Hu, Jianlin||Ying, Qi||Gao, Aifang||Zhang, Hongliang

publication date

  • December 2017