The compaction of asphalt mixtures has a significant influence on their performance. Insufficient compaction leads to several distresses, such as premature permanent deformation, excessive aging, and moisture damage, even if all desirable mixture design characteristics are met. Currently, no acceptable method relates asphalt pavement density to the compaction pattern. The compaction pattern required to achieve the desired density is established on the basis of experience and trial and error, a process that is time-consuming and expensive. This study involved comprehensive experimental evaluation of several test sections that were constructed with different asphalt mixtures by various compaction methods. Results of these experiments were used to determine the effects of compaction temperature, compaction method, mixture design, and base type on the compactability of asphalt mixtures. In addition, the paper presents a systematic method to determine the compaction pattern required to achieve the desired density of asphalt pavements. This method lends itself to integration in an automated system that can be used by roller operators to estimate density during construction.