Surface treatment design and material selection currently are based on traditional specifications and experience, which are not performance based and sometimes result in inadequate performance of the surface treatment. In 2000, the first phase of a Texas Department of Transportation research study developed a surface performance-graded (SPG) specification for the selection of surface treatment binders. The SPG specification is performance based and uses binder properties directly related to surface treatment performance and associated distresses. The specification takes into account environmental conditions, aging effects of the binder, viscoelastic behavior, and reliability. The objective of the second phase of the study was to ( a) investigate and establish the validity and applicability of the proposed SPG specification by comparing laboratory-measured SPG binder grades to actual observed field performance and making modifications where necessary and ( b) recommend the SPG specification for practical implementation. The research methodology involved highway section identification, including project data collection, laboratory testing including binder SPG grading, field performance monitoring, and data analysis. Factors included in the experimental design were binder type and suppliers, environment, aggregates, and traffic. Analyses of the results showed that there was generally a good correlation between the proposed SPG specification and actual field performance. Overall, the results indicate that the proposed SPG specification is functional; if properly applied, it promises to be a relatively cost-effective method for selecting binders to ensure adequate surface treatment performance.