The mechanical behavior of concrete materials depends to a large extent on structural elements and phenomena that are effective on micro- and nanoscales. The nanomodification of concrete materials has the potential to open up new uses and classes of concrete materials, with wideranging implications for the concrete transportation infrastructure. The development of nanotechnology-based concrete materials will require a multidisciplinary approach, consisting of teams of civil engineers, chemists, physicists, and materials scientists. To help develop nanotechnology-based concrete materials, a concentrated effort was undertaken in the United States to develop a national road map for research in this area. This effort included two National Science Foundation (NSF) workshops held in August 2006 and September 2007. In addition to NSF, the Portland Cement Association, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, the Florida Concrete and Products Association, the Army Corps of Engineers, TRB, and the International Union of Testing and Research Laboratories for Materials and Structures sponsored this effort. The road map for nanotechnology-based concrete materials charts a path beginning with current nanotechnology capabilities to advanced materials and systems. The road map details key milestones and step-by-step short-term, intermediate, and long-term courses of development that must take place to reach these key milestones. The road map also serves as a tool to identify the gap between the basic concrete materials of today and the potential of nanosystems and nanomaterials interacting in concrete nano-houses, nano-bridges, and nano-pavements. The national road map for nanotechnology-based concrete is described and discussed.