Exploratory study on bitumen content determination for foamed bitumen mixes based on porosity and indirect tensile strength
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2017 The Authors Optimum bitumen content determination is one of the major aims for foamed bitumen mix design. However, mix design procedures for foamed bitumen mixes are still under development. In this paper a method to determine the optimum bitumen content for given foamed bitumen mix based on primary aggregate structure porosity and indirect tensile strength criterion is proposed. Using packing theory concepts, the aggregate gradation is divided into three aggregate structures which are oversize, primary and secondary structures. Porosity for the primary aggregate structure is determined for given bitumen contents. A maximum value for porosity of 50% for the primary aggregate structure is used to choose initial bitumen content. Furthermore, a minimum indirect tensile strength criteria is suggested to refine this bitumen content. This method enables a bitumen content value to be chosen prior to the start of experimental work, as porosity is expressed in terms of physical parameters such as aggregate and binder specific gravity, and aggregate gradation which are known before the mix design process. The bitumen content is then later refined when the indirect tensile strength is determined in the laboratory. This method would reduce resources such as time and materials that may be required during the mix design procedure.