Pillaring of layered inorganic compounds
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Several types of layered non-clay classes of compounds have been pillared. These include layered group 4 and 14 phosphates, titanates, layered perovskites and layered double hydroxides. The first three classes of compounds are cation exchangers and do not swell in water. Therefore, the interlayer distances are enlarged by amine intercalation followed by exchange of the amine by the pillaring cation. The pore sizes and temperature stabilities will be discussed as well as ion uptakes. Layered double hydroxides have been pillared in both aqueous and non-aqueous media. In some cases lauryl sulfate is first intercalated and then exchanged out by Keggin ions. In other cases direct pillaring was obtained. These differences will be discussed in relationship to the layered double hydroxide structures.