Dispersions of non-covalently functionalized graphene with minimal stabilizer.
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We demonstrate that functionalized pyrene derivatives effectively stabilize single- and few-layer graphene flakes in aqueous dispersions. The graphene/stabilizer yield obtained by this method is exceptionally high relative to conventional nanomaterial stabilizers such as surfactants or polymers. The mechanism of stabilization by pyrene derivatives is investigated by studying the effects of various parameters on dispersed graphene concentration and stability; these parameters include stabilizer concentration, initial graphite concentration, solution pH, and type and number of functional groups and counterions. The effectiveness of the pyrene derivatives is pH-tunable, as measured by zeta potential, and is also a function of the number of functional groups, the electronegativity of the functional group, the counterion, the relative polarity between stabilizer and solvent, and the distance from the functional group to the basal plane. Even if the dispersion is destabilized by extreme pH or lyophilization, the graphene does not aggregate because the stabilizer remains adsorbed on the surface. These dispersions also show promise for applications in graphene/polymer nanocomposites (examined in this paper), organic solar cells, conductive films, and inkjet-printed electronic devices.
author list (cited authors)
Parviz, D., Das, S., Ahmed, H., Irin, F., Bhattacharia, S., & Green, M. J.
complete list of authors
Parviz, Dorsa||Das, Sriya||Ahmed, HS Tanvir||Irin, Fahmida||Bhattacharia, Sanjoy||Green, Micah J