Challenges in Liquid‐Phase Exfoliation, Processing, and Assembly of Pristine Graphene Academic Article uri icon


  • Recent developments in the exfoliation, dispersion, and processing of pristine graphene (i.e., non-oxidized graphene) are described. General metrics are outlined that can be used to assess the quality and processability of various "graphene" products, as well as metrics that determine the potential for industrial scale-up. The pristine graphene production process is categorized from a chemical engineering point of view with three key steps: i) pretreatment, ii) exfoliation, and iii) separation. How pristine graphene colloidal stability is distinct from the exfoliation step and is dependent upon graphene interactions with solvents and dispersants are extensively reviewed. Finally, the challenges and opportunities of using pristine graphene as nanofillers in polymer composites, as well as as building blocks for macrostructure assemblies are summarized in the context of large-scale production.

altmetric score

  • 3.2

author list (cited authors)

  • Parviz, D., Irin, F., Shah, S. A., Das, S., Sweeney, C. B., & Green, M. J.

citation count

  • 68

publication date

  • August 2016