Maternal recognition of pregnancy signal or endocrine disruptor: the two faces of oestrogen during establishment of pregnancy in the pig. Academic Article uri icon


  • Timing of conceptus growth and attachment to the uterine luminal epithelium is regulated by progesterone secretion from the corpus luteum and by expression of progesterone receptor in the uterine epithelia and stroma. Conceptus growth and uterine attachment are temporally associated with the disappearance of progesterone receptors from uterine epithelia. While the loss of progesterone receptor from the endometrial epithelia on day 10 of the oestrous cycle and pregnancy has been well documented, the factors involved with cell specific down-regulation of progesterone receptor are yet to be established. We propose that several progesterone stimulated factors activate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) within the uterine epithelia, which leads to inhibition of progesterone receptor and concomitant stimulation of endometrial genes expressed during early conceptus development. Although oestrogens secreted by pig conceptuses function to establish pregnancy, timing of endometrial exposure to oestrogen is critical. Early oestrogen administration alters the pattern of gene expression through the NF-kB system desynchronising the uterine environment for conceptus implantation resulting in later embryonic loss.

published proceedings

  • Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl

author list (cited authors)

  • Geisert, R. D., Ross, J. W., Ashworth, M. D., White, F. J., Johnson, G. A., & DeSilva, U.

citation count

  • 39

complete list of authors

  • Geisert, RD||Ross, JW||Ashworth, MD||White, FJ||Johnson, GA||DeSilva, U

publication date

  • January 2006