Clinical findings and treatment of non-infectious meningoencephalomyelitis in dogs: a systematic review of 457 published cases from 1962 to 2008. Academic Article uri icon


  • Non-infectious meningoencephalomyelitis (NIME) presents clinicians with diagnostic problems because specific diagnosis requires histopathological examination of central nervous system (CNS) tissue. In the absence of a precise diagnosis, clinicians refer instead to 'meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown origin' (MUO). This article compares published data on histopathologically diagnosed disease (granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis and necrotising encephalitis) with information available on the clinically-defined category of MUO. Small, middle-aged female dogs are most commonly affected by all types of NIME, but there is considerable overlap in diagnostic parameters of these diseases. Future clinical trials must aim to compare prospectively two or more randomly allocated treatments and to include pre-trial power calculations. This article provides the necessary background information to permit rational patient selection on clinical presentation alone, rather than requiring CNS biopsy, thus maximising patient recruitment whilst minimising heterogeneity.

published proceedings

  • Vet J

altmetric score

  • 8

author list (cited authors)

  • Granger, N., Smith, P. M., & Jeffery, N. D.

citation count

  • 119

complete list of authors

  • Granger, Nicolas||Smith, Peter M||Jeffery, Nick D

publication date

  • January 2009